Understanding CBD and Cannabinoids
This selection of words, acronyms and terms will help you understand more about CBD and cannabinoid based products. For example, here you find the definition of CBD and the definition of THC.
A naturally occurring cannabinoid in the human body that plays a role in the endocannabinoid system by interacting with cannabinoid receptors.
This is a cannabinoid that occurs naturally in the human body and plays a part in the endocannabinoid system by interacting with cannabinoid receptors.
The bioavailability of a product refers to the efficiency and rate at which it is absorbed into the bloodstream for use by the body.
CBD is one of over 113 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. It is a prevalent cannabinoid that has no psychoactive effect.
A group of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the cannabaceae family. The plant is commonly classified by species - e.g cannabis sativa.
A cannabis concentrate from the cannabis plant which is produced in a scientific manner, e.g. using CO2 as an extraction method.
Cannabis Sativa L - Cannabis Indica
Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica are plant species within the genus cannabis. As well as being a source of cannabinoids such as CBD, its fibres - sometimes known as hemp - are also used in the production of textiles and some other industrial products.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDa)
This is the ‘raw’ form of CBD. It occurs naturally on stems, leaves and flowers of some varieties of cannabis. Once carbon dioxide and hydrogen are removed from CBDa – either naturally, due to light and heat, or through a heat treatment process – it becomes CBD.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extraction
A method of using pressurised carbon dioxide to extract cannabinoids such as CBD from cannabis.
A chemical reaction that changes CBDa – the ‘raw’ form of CBD – into CBD that can be used by the body. It is usually achieved by applying heat.
CBD Dominant Cannabis Strains
Different strains of cannabis contain varying quantities of CBD and other cannabinoids. Strains that are high in CBD and have small quantities of THC are CBD dominant.
CBD naturally supports the body’s endocannabinoid system. It has no psychoactive effect and does not impair your daily routine.
A substance extracted from the cannabis plant. This extract contains cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids and other plant materials. The levels of each of these components are influenced by the plant source, extraction method, and further processing methods applied.
Candy chews, sometimes called CBD edibles, containing CBD.
CB1 and CB2 Receptors
As part of the endocannabinoid system, the body’s cannabinoid receptors are activated by cannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG. CB1 and CB2 receptors are both types of cannabinoid receptor. When activated, they influence different parts of the body, including motor activity, thinking and appetite (CB1) or the gut, the kidneys and the skin (CB2).
Also known as cannabidiol oil or CBD hemp oil, is an oil containing extracted CBD from the cannabis plant. This can come in a pure CBD oil format which has been isolated from the cannabis plant or can be cold pressed. CBD oil can be used by humans and CBD oil for dogs is also available.
A concentrated liquid made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant, usually using alcohol.
A measured quantity of a medicine or nutritional product and the frequency with which it can be taken. In the case of CBD, users sometimes struggle to achieve a consistent dose using products such as oils, tinctures and vaping pens.
A complex network of chemical messengers and cell receptors that help fine-tune the body’s biochemistry. It helps the body’s systems to work together in balance.
This effect refers to the synergy or increased benefits provided by ingesting the various cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids found in the whole cannabis plant. Full spectrum CBD extracts include the full range of cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes to maximise this synergistic effect.
Flavonoids are a group of phytonutrients found in almost all plants.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The US body that aims to protect public health by ensuring food, drugs and other products are safe and that they have the effects they claim to have.
Food Supplement / Dietary Supplement
A product specifically intended to add nutritional value to the regular diet. Food supplements, sometimes called dietary supplements, are likely to contain one or more of the following ingredients: vitamins; minerals; amino acids; concentrates; metabolites; herbs or other botanicals. Products that may be labelled as CBD oil, cannabis oil or hemp oil are sometimes sold as food supplements.
Full Spectrum CBD
This term refers to the cannabinoid profile of a CBD product which includes a range of cannabinoids but does not include THC.
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
The practices that manufacturers of pharmaceutical products, food, drinks, cosmetics, dietary supplements and medical devices must use in order to comply with approved guidelines. The practices are designed to protect safety and quality.
Satipharm Gelpell® capsules contain a measured consistent dose of CBD in a patented formulation designed to increase the bioavailability of the CBD taken. The formulation also protects the cannabinoids from the harmful effects of heat, light and oxidation, and are manufactured in Switzerland under GMP standards.
Also known as hemp seed oil is an extract from the seeds of cannabis, traditionally extracted by cold pressing. Hemp seed oil will not contain cannabinoids like CBD as the seeds do not contain cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are only found in the growing plants.
Cannabis products containing THC that are recommended by doctors for their patients. In countries or states where Medical Cannabis has been legalised, it may be prescribed to help reduce pain, relieve symptoms of multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, reduce nausea and improve sleep. Research into the therapeutic uses of Medical Cannabis is ongoing.
An alternate term used to describe Medical Cannabis.
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
The UK agency responsible for making sure medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
When taken, a non-psychotoxic substance does not interfere with normal behaviour. CBD is non-psychotoxic.
The process in which a chemical substance changes in the presence of oxygen (i.e. when exposed to air). Cannabinoids are degraded by oxidation.
Cannabis products containing THC consumed socially or recreationally with the intention of inducing relaxation or euphoria.
An alternate term used to describe Recreational Cannabis.
Manmade [PF39] chemicals that mimic the effect of natural cannabinoids in the human body.
Terpenes and Terpenoids
Terpenes are organic compounds produced by plants. They are the main constituent of the essential oils produced by many plants and flowers, and as such, are often used in perfumes and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Terpenoids are modified terpenes with additional components. Full spectrum extracts from the hemp plant contains both terpenes and terpenoids.
Commonly shortened to THC, this cannabinoid is the psychoactive inducing substance found in cannabis. THC can be found in formats such as THC oils and THC pills.
Whole Plant Extract (Full spectrum)
An extract of cannabis that contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids, flavonoids and terpenes in the plant that, when taken, maximises the ‘entourage effect’.